Which programming languages will dominate in 2024


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The year 2023 brought a mix of technological surprises and constant advancements, particularly in cloud computing and artificial intelligence. This evolution has sparked a rise in no-code and low-code platforms, augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), and a shift towards integrating security into DevOps, now known as DevSecOps. We’re now looking at which programming languages will dominate in 2024, questioning the future-proof nature of languages like PythonJava, C#, Go, and Rust

The changing tech landscape demands that programming languages and tools adapt, add features, and possibly redefine their roles. The increasing use of language models in software development raises questions about the future of programming languages. Insights from Microsoft’s experience with the Semantic Kernel highlight how these tools are being utilized in unexpected ways.

Python’s continued dominance

Python, a language synonymous with simplicity and efficiency, has maintained its stronghold in the programming world into 2024 — expanding its influence across diverse domains from web development to scientific research. Its intuitive syntax and ease of learning make it a favorite among both beginners and experts, fostering a large, active community. The language excels in data handling with libraries like Pandas and NumPy, essential for data analysis and big data processing. Python 3.12 introduced significant improvements, notably a free-threaded version addressing its Global Interpreter Lock limitation. It plays a pivotal role in AI and ML development, thanks to libraries like TensorFlow and PyTorch. Python’s versatility and continuous evolution in its ecosystem secure its position as an indispensable tool in the programming world.

Rise of TypeScript and JavaScript’s steady presence

In 2024, TypeScript, a superset of JavaScript, has witnessed a remarkable rise in popularity among developers, primarily due to its optional static typing that enhances code reliability and maintainability for large-scale applications. Its compatibility with JavaScript allows for a seamless integration into existing projects, making it a favored choice for complex software development. 

Meanwhile, JavaScript continues to be the cornerstone of web development, its importance undiminished despite the emergence of new languages. Its extensive library and framework support, particularly with React, Angular, and Vue.js, facilitate the creation of dynamic web applications. The advent of Node.js has expanded JavaScript’s reach into server-side development, solidifying its versatility and indispensability.

According to the State of JavaScript 2022 report, 20.7% of developers use TypeScript exclusively, while 8.2% only use JavaScript. A study from JetBrains shows that TypeScript has almost tripled its user base from 12% in 2017 to 34% in 2022. Another study indicates that TypeScript usage increased by 12 percentage points, reaching 39% of developers. 

The relationship between TypeScript and JavaScript is synergistic; TypeScript’s growth complements JavaScript’s established role, offering developers a versatile toolkit for various project scales. TypeScript’s ascent reflects the industry’s need for more sophisticated software solutions, while JavaScript’s steadfast presence underscores its foundational role in web development. Together, they form a dynamic duo, shaping the future of programming in 2024 and beyond.

C #’s versatility and growth

Originally designed for building Windows applications, C#’s journey has been intrinsically linked with the .NET framework. Microsoft’s consistent updates and enhancements to .NET have played a crucial role in C #’s evolution. The .NET 6 release, for instance, brought significant performance improvements and cross-platform capabilities, making C# more versatile than ever. 

NET, being a free, cross-platform, open-source developer platform, has widened the scope of C# beyond its traditional stronghold in Windows applications. With . NET’s expansion to encompass Linux and other operating systems, C #’s utility has increased multifold, making it a more versatile and attractive option for a broader range of developers and projects.

Primarily, it’s a go-to language for game development, particularly with the Unity game engine. This synergy between C# and Unity has made it possible for developers to create high-quality games with relative ease. Beyond gaming, C# is heavily utilized in the development of desktop applications, illustrating its robustness in handling complex software requirements.

Additionally, the language has made substantial inroads in cloud-based solutions. The compatibility of C# with Microsoft’s Azure platform exemplifies its effectiveness in developing scalable, secure, and efficient cloud applications. This aspect is crucial in the current era, where cloud computing is becoming increasingly central to business and technology strategies.

The SDK Semantic Kernel’s introduction also played a role in this growth trajectory. Microsoft’s response to the unexpectedly high demand for the SDK led to a shift in its development strategy. The company’s adaptability in response to this demand, including plans for Python and Java versions of the SDK, exemplifies Microsoft’s commitment to evolving with the developer community’s needs.

The TIOBE index, a respected indicator of programming language popularity, shed light on this trend in mid-December 2023. Although Python led the index, C# showed a notable increase in popularity, positioning it to potentially claim the fourth spot. This index, which considers various factors like search engine results, courses, and third-party inquiries, does not necessarily reflect the best language or the one with the most written code. However, it does offer a snapshot of current trends and developer preferences.

Emerging trends and their influence in 2024

Ongoing and future developments in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML), cloud computing, multi-platform application development, and the burgeoning Internet of Things (IoT) sector will continue to grow and evolve in 2024.

AI and ML continue to be at the forefront of technological innovation. This surge is driving the demand for programming languages adept at data analysis, neural networks, and automated processes. Python, with its extensive libraries and user-friendly nature, is poised to maintain its dominance in this sector. Its capability to simplify complex processes makes it a go-to choice for AI and ML applications.

Julia, a language designed for high-performance computing, particularly in mathematical operations, is also gaining traction. Its specific design for computational efficiency could see it becoming increasingly vital in the AI and ML landscape. The ongoing development and potential regulations, like the EU’s AI Act, could shape the future trajectory of these languages in AI.

Cloud services and serverless architectures are becoming increasingly integral to company operations. Languages like Go and Python are becoming more critical due to their scalability, efficiency, and seamless cloud integration. As many companies are either transitioning or planning to migrate to cloud infrastructures, these languages’ relevance is expected to soar.

The demand for multi-platform applications (spanning web, mobile, desktop) remains strong. Languages and frameworks that facilitate this cross-platform development are in high demand. JavaScript, with frameworks like React Native and Angular, Dart (with Flutter), and C# (using Xamarin or MAUI), continues to be indispensable. Their ability to adapt and function across various platforms makes them invaluable in the current development landscape.

As the IoT market grows, the importance of programming languages tailored for IoT device development is increasing. Python, JavaScript, and C/C++ are anticipated to remain popular choices in IoT development due to their versatility and efficiency. These languages offer the flexibility needed to create varied and innovative IoT solutions.

As cybersecurity threats are escalating, programming languages that offer robust security features are becoming more vital. Rust, known for its security features and memory safety, could see an increase in popularity. Its ability to prevent common security vulnerabilities makes it an increasingly appealing choice for secure application development.

In short: Important programming languages in 2024

In summary, Python will continues to lead because it’s easy to use and great for trending areas like AI and data science. Despite its widespread use, the possibility of Python losing its importance seems remote. Only a major upheaval or the emergence of a direct successor could potentially challenge its standing.

JavaScript’s ubiquity in web development secures its position as a key programming language. Its presence is felt in almost every aspect of the web, making it indispensable. TypeScript is gaining traction for its ability to create robust and scalable applications. While TypeScript’s growth is notable, it is unlikely to surpass JavaScript in user numbers in the near term, considering JavaScript’s deep-rooted presence in the web ecosystem.

Java continues to be a cornerstone in enterprise development, particularly for backend systems, Android development, and complex systems. Its platform independence, performance, and security features make it a preferred choice in many organizations. However, Java faces the challenge of modernization, and recent trends indicate a decline in its popularity. The future of Java hinges on how it adapts to these challenges and whether it can fend off competition from languages like Kotlin.

Go, also known as Golang, is increasingly becoming the language of choice for cloud computing and serverless architectures. Its efficiency, simple syntax, and excellent concurrency handling make it ideal for modern, scalable, and high-performance web applications and microservices. Google’s increased commitment to Go is likely to boost its popularity and application in various tech sectors.

With Microsoft’s continuous support and development of the .NET framework, C# is expected to maintain its significant role in game development, desktop applications, and cloud-based solutions. The impact of .NET 8 as an LTS version and the upcoming features in C# 12 are yet to be fully realized. The release of .NET 9 next year is anticipated to further influence C #’s adoption and utility in various domains.

New Entrants

In 2023, the programming world welcomed Mojo, a new language tailored for AI and machine learning development. Developed by Chris Lattner, creator of Swift, and Tim Davis from Google, Mojo originates from their company, Modular. It’s designed to blend Python’s simplicity with the efficiency of native C, targeting a revolution in AI model development. 

Mojo is fully interoperable with Python, allowing seamless integration into existing AI frameworks. It offers advanced features like extensive system programming, compile-time metaprogramming, and autotuning. Mojo aims to solve the “three-layer problem” in AI development, which separates high-level programming, core algorithmic work, and hardware integration. 

By unifying these layers, Mojo simplifies complex machine operations, crucial for advanced AI projects. Its impact on AI application development could be significant, offering both power and simplicity. However, its acceptance and speed of adoption by the programming community are yet to be determined.

Wrapping up

Established languages like Python, JavaScript/TypeScript, Java, and C# continue to dominate in areas like AI, web development, enterprise solutions, and gaming. However, the resurgence of rivalries, such as C++ versus Python, adds to the dynamism in the field, offering developers a rich selection of tools tailored to specific needs.

For those entering the world of coding, learning languages like Python, JavaScript, and C# remains highly beneficial, providing a solid foundation across various tech domains. Meanwhile, paying attention to emerging languages like Mojo, and current contenders like Julia, Go, and Dart, is crucial. These languages are carving out their niches in high-performance computing, cloud services, and mobile app development, presenting new avenues for innovation and career growth.

In essence, 2024 is a year where adaptability and continuous learning in programming are key, offering both challenges and opportunities for developers at all levels.

Sabarinath is the founder and chief-editor of Code and Hack. With an unwavering passion for all things futuristic tech, open source, and coding, he delves into the world of emerging technologies and shares his expertise through captivating articles and in-depth guides. Sabarinath's unique ability to simplify complex concepts makes his writing accessible and engaging for coding newbies, empowering them to embark on their coding journey with confidence. With a wealth of knowledge and experience, Sabarinath is dedicated to providing valuable insights, staying at the forefront of technological advancements, and inspiring readers to explore the limitless possibilities of the digital realm.

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